Confirmation Bias

Confirmation bias is the tendency to search for, interpret favourably, favour, recall data/evidence in a way that confirms or supports one's prior beliefs or values. This effect is stronger for deeply held beliefs, identity topics, or strong emotional triggers.


Current explanations for the bias reveal the limited human capacity to process the complete set of information available, leading to a failure to investigate in a neutral, scientific way.


Flawed decisions due to confirmation bias have been found in political, organizational, financial and scientific contexts. These biases contribute to overconfidence in personal beliefs and can maintain or strengthen beliefs in the face of contrary evidence. Confirmation bias can play a key role in the propagation of mass delusions and belief in psychics.